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#1: RAID10: near, far, offset -- which one?

Posted on 2006-10-05 17:23:21 by Martin F Krafft

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I am trying to compare the three RADI10 layouts with each other.
Assuming a simple 4 drive setup with 2 copies of each block,
I understand that a "near" layout makes RAID10 resemble RAID1+0
(although it's not 1+0).

I also understand that the "far" layout trades some read performance
for some write performance, so it's best for read-intensive
operations, like read-only file servers.

I don't really understand the "offset" layout. Am I right in
asserting that like "near" it keeps stripes together and thus
requires less seeking, but stores the blocks at different offsets
wrt the disks?

If A,B,C are data blocks, a,b their parts, and 1,2 denote their
copies, the following would be a classic RAID1+0 where 1,2 and 3,4
are RAID0 pairs combined into a RAID1:

hdd1 Aa1 Ba1 Ca1
hdd2 Ab1 Bb1 Cb1
hdd3 Aa2 Ba2 Ca2
hdd4 Ab2 Bb2 Cb2

How would this look with the three different layouts? I think "near"
is pretty much the same as above, but I can't figure out "far" and
"offset" from the md(4) manpage.

Also, what are their respective advantages and disadvantages?

Thanks,

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#2: Re: RAID10: near, far, offset -- which one?

Posted on 2006-10-05 19:57:13 by Eli Stair

Taken for what it is, here's some recent experience I'm seeing (not a
precise explanation as you're asking for, which I'd like to know also).

Layout : near=2, far=1
Chunk Size : 512K
gtmp01,16G,,,125798,22,86157,17,,,337603,34,765.3,2,16,240,1 ,+++++,+++,237,1,241,1,+++++,+++,239,1
gtmp01,16G,,,129137,21,87074,17,,,336256,34,751.7,1,16,239,1 ,+++++,+++,238,1,240,1,+++++,+++,238,1
gtmp01,16G,,,125458,22,86293,17,,,338146,34,755.8,1,16,240,1 ,+++++,+++,237,1,240,1,+++++,+++,237,1

Layout : near=1, offset=2
Chunk Size : 512K
gtmp02,16G,,,141278,25,98789,20,,,297263,29,767.5,2,16,240,1 ,+++++,+++,238,1,240,1,+++++,+++,238,1
gtmp02,16G,,,143068,25,98469,20,,,316138,31,793.6,1,16,239,1 ,+++++,+++,237,1,239,1,+++++,+++,238,0
gtmp02,16G,,,143236,24,99234,20,,,313824,32,782.1,1,16,240,1 ,+++++,+++,237,1,240,1,+++++,+++,238,1


Here, testing with bonnie++, 14-drive RAID10 dual-multipath FC, 10K 146G
drives. RAID5 nets the same approximate read performance (sometimes
higher), with single-thread writes limited to 100MB/sec, and
concurrent-thread R/W access in the pits (obvious for RAID5).

mdadm 2.5.3
linux 2.6.18
xfs (mkfs.xfs -d su=512k,sw=3 -l logdev=/dev/sda1 -f /dev/md0)


Cheers,

/eli




martin f krafft wrote:
> I am trying to compare the three RADI10 layouts with each other.
> Assuming a simple 4 drive setup with 2 copies of each block,
> I understand that a "near" layout makes RAID10 resemble RAID1+0
> (although it's not 1+0).
>
> I also understand that the "far" layout trades some read performance
> for some write performance, so it's best for read-intensive
> operations, like read-only file servers.
>
> I don't really understand the "offset" layout. Am I right in
> asserting that like "near" it keeps stripes together and thus
> requires less seeking, but stores the blocks at different offsets
> wrt the disks?
>
> If A,B,C are data blocks, a,b their parts, and 1,2 denote their
> copies, the following would be a classic RAID1+0 where 1,2 and 3,4
> are RAID0 pairs combined into a RAID1:
>
> hdd1 Aa1 Ba1 Ca1
> hdd2 Ab1 Bb1 Cb1
> hdd3 Aa2 Ba2 Ca2
> hdd4 Ab2 Bb2 Cb2
>
> How would this look with the three different layouts? I think "near"
> is pretty much the same as above, but I can't figure out "far" and
> "offset" from the md(4) manpage.
>
> Also, what are their respective advantages and disadvantages?
>
> Thanks,
>

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#3: Re: RAID10: near, far, offset -- which one?

Posted on 2006-10-10 01:27:55 by NeilBrown

On Thursday October 5, madduck@madduck.net wrote:
> I am trying to compare the three RADI10 layouts with each other.
> Assuming a simple 4 drive setup with 2 copies of each block,
> I understand that a "near" layout makes RAID10 resemble RAID1+0
> (although it's not 1+0).
>
> I also understand that the "far" layout trades some read performance
> for some write performance, so it's best for read-intensive
> operations, like read-only file servers.
>
> I don't really understand the "offset" layout. Am I right in
> asserting that like "near" it keeps stripes together and thus
> requires less seeking, but stores the blocks at different offsets
> wrt the disks?
>
> If A,B,C are data blocks, a,b their parts, and 1,2 denote their
> copies, the following would be a classic RAID1+0 where 1,2 and 3,4
> are RAID0 pairs combined into a RAID1:
>
> hdd1 Aa1 Ba1 Ca1
> hdd2 Ab1 Bb1 Cb1
> hdd3 Aa2 Ba2 Ca2
> hdd4 Ab2 Bb2 Cb2
>
> How would this look with the three different layouts? I think "near"
> is pretty much the same as above, but I can't figure out "far" and
> "offset" from the md(4) manpage.

near=2 would be

hdd1 Aa1 Ba1 Ca1
hdd2 Aa2 Ba2 Ca2
hdd3 Ab1 Bb1 Cb1
hdd4 Ab2 Bb2 Cb2

offset=2 would be

hdd1 Aa1 Bb2 Ca1 Db2
hdd2 Ab1 Aa2 Cb1 Ca2
hdd3 Ba1 Ab2 Da1 Cb2
hdd4 Bb1 Ba2 Db1 Da2

far=2 would be

hdd1 Aa1 Ca1 .... Bb2 Db2
hdd2 Ab1 Cb1 .... Aa2 Ca2
hdd3 Ba1 Da1 .... Ab2 Cb2
hdd4 Bb1 Db1 .... Ba2 Da2

Where the second set start half-way through the drives.

The advantage of far= is that you can easily spread a long sequential
read across the drives. The cost is more seeking for writes.
offset= can possibly get similar benefits with large enough chunk
size, though I haven't tried to understand all the implications of
that layout. I added it simply because it is a supported layout in
DDF and I am working towards DDF support.

NeilBrown
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