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#1: Assembling array with missing members

Posted on 2011-08-01 06:51:12 by Alex

Hi,
I have an old fedora server with a raid1 and raid5 array comprised of
four disks. One of the disks just died, and in the process of trying
to replace the disk, the server will for some reason no longer boot. I
think it was a problem with my initrd. I've since replaced the
defective disk (sdd) with a new one and created the fd partitions the
same size as they were originally. Booting from a current rescue CDROM
and trying to use mdadm to reassmble the raid5 array, and I'm having a
problem:

% mdadm --assemble --auto=3Dyes =A0/dev/md1 /dev/sd[abcd]2
mdadm: no RAID superblock on /dev/sdd2
mdadm: /dev/sdd2 has no superblock - assembly aborted

% cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5]
[raid4] [raid10]
md1 : inactive sda2[0](S) sdb2[2](S) sdc2[1](S)
=A0 =A0 =A02928978624 blocks

md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[2] sdc1[1]
=A0 =A0 =A024000 blocks [3/3] [UUU]

It looks like the members of md1 are all (S)pares, correct?

% cat /etc/mdadm.conf
DEVICE /dev/sdb2 /dev/sdd2 /dev/sdc2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdd1
/dev/sdc1 /dev/sda1
ARRAY /dev/md1 level=3D5 num-devices=3D4
devices=3D/dev/sdd2,/dev/sdc2,/dev/sdb2,/dev/sda2

I recreated the mdadm.conf primarily from memory, but also from some
knowledge from mdadm:
% mdadm -Es
ARRAY /dev/md0 UUID=3D19fa0ce7:7733d970:be048336:6d8b5ba8
ARRAY /dev/md1 UUID=3D912aa422:617ee3db:df65aa69:42b7599e

Here is some information from sda2 in hopes it will provide details on
the array that will be helpful.

% mdadm --examine /dev/sda2
/dev/sda2:
=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0Magic : a92b4efc
=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0Version : 0.90.00
=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 UUID : 912aa422:617ee3db:df65aa69:42b7599e
=A0Creation Time : Sat Jun 26 16:19:21 2010
=A0 =A0 Raid Level : raid5
=A0Used Dev Size : 976326208 (931.10 GiB 999.76 GB)
=A0 =A0 Array Size : 2928978624 (2793.29 GiB 2999.27 GB)
=A0 Raid Devices : 4
=A0Total Devices : 4
Preferred Minor : 1

=A0 =A0Update Time : Sun Jul 31 23:24:25 2011
=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A0State : active
=A0Active Devices : 3
Working Devices : 3
=A0Failed Devices : 1
=A0Spare Devices : 0
=A0 =A0 =A0 Checksum : 92905b9f - correct
=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 Events : 1041521

=A0 =A0 =A0 =A0 Layout : left-symmetric
=A0 =A0 Chunk Size : 64K

=A0 =A0 =A0Number =A0 Major =A0 Minor =A0 RaidDevice State
this =A0 =A0 0 =A0 =A0 =A0 8 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A02 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A00 =A0 =A0 =
=A0active sync =A0 /dev/sda2

=A0 0 =A0 =A0 0 =A0 =A0 =A0 8 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A02 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A00 =A0 =A0=
=A0active sync =A0 /dev/sda2
=A0 1 =A0 =A0 1 =A0 =A0 =A0 8 =A0 =A0 =A0 18 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A01 =A0 =A0 =A0=
active sync =A0 /dev/sdb2
=A0 2 =A0 =A0 2 =A0 =A0 =A0 8 =A0 =A0 =A0 34 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A02 =A0 =A0 =A0=
active sync =A0 /dev/sdc2
=A0 3 =A0 =A0 3 =A0 =A0 =A0 0 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A00 =A0 =A0 =A0 =A03 =A0 =A0=
=A0faulty removed

I'm really not sure what to do next and obviously would like to do
everything possible to save the array.

How can I either have mdadm rebuild the array using the new disk or
start in degraded mode so I can rescue the data? Perhaps there's
another option?

Thanks,
Alex
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#2: Re: Assembling array with missing members

Posted on 2011-08-01 11:37:06 by John Robinson

On 01/08/2011 05:51, Alex wrote:
> Hi,
> I have an old fedora server with a raid1 and raid5 array comprised of
> four disks. One of the disks just died, and in the process of trying
> to replace the disk, the server will for some reason no longer boot. I
> think it was a problem with my initrd. I've since replaced the
> defective disk (sdd) with a new one and created the fd partitions the
> same size as they were originally.

The usual way to do this is
sfdisk -d /dev/originaldevice | sfdisk /dev/newdevice

But I usually do it as follows, to copy the rest of the boot sector and
grub stuff:
dd if=/dev/originaldevice of=/dev/newdevice bs=512 count=63
blockdev --rereadpt /dev/newdevice

(If the original partitions started at 1MB instead of the second
cylinder, it would have been count=2048 above.)

In both cases, originaldevice is a still-existing original RAID member disc.

> Booting from a current rescue CDROM
> and trying to use mdadm to reassmble the raid5 array, and I'm having a
> problem:
>
> % mdadm --assemble --auto=yes /dev/md1 /dev/sd[abcd]2
> mdadm: no RAID superblock on /dev/sdd2
> mdadm: /dev/sdd2 has no superblock - assembly aborted

That's right, you shouldn't have asked it to include sdd2 as it doesn't
yet have a RAID superblock on it.

[...]
> I'm really not sure what to do next and obviously would like to do
> everything possible to save the array.
>
> How can I either have mdadm rebuild the array using the new disk or
> start in degraded mode so I can rescue the data? Perhaps there's
> another option?

Assemble it without sdd2 which currently has no superblock, then add the
new drive:

mdadm --stop /dev/md1
mdadm --assemble /dev/md1 --auto=yes /dev/sd[abc]2
mdadm --manage /dev/md1 --add /dev/sdd2

This will start the rebuild process and after a while (with 1TB drives,
maybe a day) and assuming the rebuild goes well, you'll be fully
operational again.

I imagine you will also want to add sdd1 to md0 in a similar manner.

Cheers,

John.

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#3: Re: Assembling array with missing members

Posted on 2011-08-01 13:12:12 by Alex

Hi,

>> I have an old fedora server with a raid1 and raid5 array comprised o=
f
>> four disks. One of the disks just died, and in the process of trying
>> to replace the disk, the server will for some reason no longer boot.=
I
>> think it was a problem with my initrd. I've since replaced the
>> defective disk (sdd) with a new one and created the fd partitions th=
e
>> same size as they were originally.
>
> The usual way to do this is
> =A0sfdisk -d /dev/originaldevice | sfdisk /dev/newdevice
>
> But I usually do it as follows, to copy the rest of the boot sector a=
nd grub
> stuff:
> =A0dd if=3D/dev/originaldevice of=3D/dev/newdevice bs=3D512 count=3D6=
3
> =A0blockdev --rereadpt /dev/newdevice
>
> (If the original partitions started at 1MB instead of the second cyli=
nder,
> it would have been count=3D2048 above.)
>
> In both cases, originaldevice is a still-existing original RAID membe=
r disc.

Should I do this in lieu of a rebuild, or in addition to the rebuild
process you've described below?

> Assemble it without sdd2 which currently has no superblock, then add =
the new
> drive:
>
> mdadm --stop /dev/md1
> mdadm --assemble /dev/md1 --auto=3Dyes /dev/sd[abc]2
> mdadm --manage /dev/md1 --add /dev/sdd2

I've tried this, but it complains about the system not being shut down
cleanly. Should I just force it?

% mdadm --assemble /dev/md1 --auto=3Dyes /dev/sd[abc]2
mdadm: /dev/md1 assembled from 3 drives - not enough to start the
array while not clean - consider --force.

Thanks again,
Alex
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#4: Re: Assembling array with missing members

Posted on 2011-08-01 13:17:10 by Mikael Abrahamsson

On Mon, 1 Aug 2011, Alex wrote:

> I've tried this, but it complains about the system not being shut down
> cleanly. Should I just force it?

Check so that the event count is fairly ok on all components (doesn't
differ too much), and then --force it. It's not that you have much choice
currently, but that's a good sanity check.

--
Mikael Abrahamsson email: swmike@swm.pp.se
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#5: Re: Assembling array with missing members

Posted on 2011-08-02 06:26:05 by Alex

Hi,

>> I've tried this, but it complains about the system not being shut down
>> cleanly. Should I just force it?
>
> Check so that the event count is fairly ok on all components (doesn't differ
> too much), and then --force it. It's not that you have much choice
> currently, but that's a good sanity check.

Thanks so much for your help. I've managed to add the new disk and
make the whole array active. Took about 6hrs at 35MB/s to sync. I'm
now copying all 1.5TB to a remote server and will rebuild it from
scratch.

Thanks again,
Alex
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